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Chlorine Dioxide Systems

Chlorine dioxide is a very powerful biocide and a strong oxidizing agent. Chlorine dioxide is being increasingly used in various water treatment applications instead of chlorine. This is because of the many advantages of chlorine dioxide over chlorine.
Chlorine dioxide is stable in water and can be used to form a residual to prevent recontamination. Chlorine dioxide is generated at site and fed into the water.

Chlorine dioxide as Disinfectant
1. Chlorine dioxide has excellent bactericidal, virucidal, sporicidal, and algicidal properties and because of this, it is used to disinfect water and to inhibit the growth of algae.

Chlorine dioxide is a far more powerful disinfectant than chlorine. A comparison of the biocidal action of chlorine dioxide and chlorine on Cryptosporidium Parvum, E. Coli, and Giardia Lambila is presented in the table below

RATE (%)
time required at
a concentration of 1 ppm
time required at a
> 99.99
3 - 4 mins
1.2 mins
1440 mins
> 120 mins
104-122 mins
23 mins

As we can see from the table chlorine dioxide is a far better disinfectant than chlorine. One of the main advantage of chlorine dioxide is that its Biocidal efficiency is not dependent on pH where as the Biocidal efficiency of chlorine is highly dependent on pH. Chlorine becomes ineffective if the pH value is above 8.

2. Chlorine dioxide is stable in water and a residual level of chlorine dioxide can be maintained to prevent recontamination. Any sample of water with O.2-PPM residual chlorine dioxide is free from contamination.

3. One more advantage of using chlorine dioxide is that it prevents the formation of bio-films in the piping system and hence keeps the piping system clean.

4. Chlorine dioxide does not react with organic matter in water to form Trihalomethanes and Chloramines like chlorine. These substances are toxic and many of them are carcinogenic. Chlorine dioxide does not leave behind any undesirable substances in the water and also due to the above reason the treated water will not have the typical chlorine smell. Due to this reason, in many cases the use of activated carbon filter can be avoided which are used to eliminate traces of chlorine.

Disinfection Products of Chlorine and Chlorine dioxide


Chlorine-di-oxide as an Oxidant
As an oxidant, chlorine dioxide is used for
  The removal of iron and manganese. The reduction of turbidity and color. The removal of odors and flavors
  The control of algae growth
  The removal of pesticides

Important applications of Chlorine-di-oxide
Some of the applications in which chlorine dioxide has been very successful are listed below:

  Public drinking water supply.
  Food and Beverage industry.
  In the Paper industry for combating slime.
  Treatment of water in Breweries.
  Pasteurizing and Rinsing in Breweries.
  In CIP systems as a disinfectant.
  Cooling water treatment.
  Cold sterile bottling.
  Condensate water treatment in the Milk industry. In Aqua culture
  Wash water treatment for use in agriculture.
  Meat processing industry.

We can conclude by saying that Chlorine dioxide is a far superior disinfectant than Chlorine. Chlorine dioxide is also far safer than chlorine due to the fact that it does not give rise to harmful byproducts such as THMs, chlorophenols, chloramines and organic halides, some which are toxic and carcinogenic in nature. Also the biocidal efficiency of chlorine dioxide does not vary with pH, where as the biocidal efficiency of chlorine decreases as the pH value increases. Chlorine dioxide prevents the formation of bio- film in the piping system there by keeping the piping system clean.

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